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Biochemistry. 2000 Mar 7;39(9):2297-306.

Selectivity of the yersiniabactin synthetase adenylation domain in the two-step process of amino acid activation and transfer to a holo-carrier protein domain.

Author information

1
Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

Abstract

The adenylation (A) domain of the Yersinia pestis nonribosomal peptide synthetase that biosynthesizes the siderophore yersiniabactin (Ybt) activates three molecules of L-cysteine and covalently aminoacylates the phosphopantetheinyl (P-pant) thiols on three peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domains embedded in the two synthetase subunits, two in cis (PCP1, PCP2) in subunit HMWP2 and one in trans (PCP3) in subunit HMWP1. This two-step process of activation and loading by the A domain is analogous to the operation of the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in ribosomal peptide synthesis. Adenylation domain specificity for the first step of reversible aminoacyl adenylate formation was assessed with the amino acid-dependent [(32)P]-PP(i)-ATP exchange assay to show that S-2-aminobutyrate and beta-chloro-L-alanine were alternate substrates. The second step of A domain catalysis, capture of the bound aminoacyl adenylate by the P-pant-SH of the PCP domains, was assayed both by catalytic release of PP(i) and by covalent aminoacylation of radiolabeled substrates on either the PCP1 fragment of HMWP2 or the PCP3-thioesterase double domain fragment of HMWP1. There was little selectivity for capture of each of the three adenylates by PCP3 in the second step, arguing against any hydrolytic proofreading of incorrect substrates by the A domain. The holo-PCP3 domain accelerated PP(i) release and catalytic turnover by 100-200-fold over the leak rate (<1 min(-1)) of aminoacyl adenylates into solution while PCP1 in trans had only about a 5-fold effect. Free pantetheine could capture cysteinyl adenylate with a 25-50-fold increase in k(cat) while CoA was 10-fold less effective. The K(m) of free pantetheine (30-50 mM) was 3 orders of magnitude larger than that of PCP3-TE (10-25 microM), indicating a net 10(4) greater catalytic efficiency for transfer to the P-pant arm of PCP3 by the Ybt synthetase A domain, relative to P-pant alone.

PMID:
10694396
DOI:
10.1021/bi992341z
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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