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Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1999 Jul-Dec;25(4-6):365-72.

Preventive effects of an oral sorbent on nephropathy in rats.

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Nagoya University Daiko Medical Center, Nagoya, Japan.


Circulating uremic substances are thought to be involved in the progression of chronic renal failure (CRF). An oral adsorbent AST-120 (Kremezin) is effective in removing circulating uremic toxins from the gastrointestinal tract, and retards the progression of CRF. AST-120 is widely used as an approved drug in Japan for the treatment of undialyzed uremic patients to delay the progression of CRF. AST-120 attenuates the progression of glomerular sclerosis and interstitial fibrosis in a variety of experimental rat models of CRF. However, the mechanism by which AST-120 delays the progression of CRF had not been clear. We have demonstrated that indoxyl sulfate, a dietary protein metabolite, is a circulating uremic toxin stimulating glomerular sclerosis and interstitial fibrosis, and that AST-120 decreases the serum and urine levels of indoxyl sulfate by adsorbing its precursor, indole, in the intestine. The administration of indoxyl sulfate to uremic rats stimulated the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and pro-alpha1(I)collagen in the kidneys. Further, the administration of AST-120 to uremic rats reduced the extent of glomerular sclerosis and interstitial fibrosis as well as the renal expression of TGF-beta1 and TIMP-1, by reducing the serum and urine levels of indoxyl sulfate. We propose the protein metabolite hypothesis that endogenous protein metabolites such as indoxyl sulfate play an important role in the progression of CRF, and that AST-120 is effective in retarding the progression of CRF by removing these protein metabolites through intestinal absorption.

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