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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000 Mar;44(3):705-9.

The biopesticide Paenibacillus popilliae has a vancomycin resistance gene cluster homologous to the enterococcal VanA vancomycin resistance gene cluster.

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Division of Infectious Diseases, Infectious Diseases Research Laboratory, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.


We have previously identified, in Paenibacillus popilliae, a 708-bp sequence which has homology to the sequence of the enterococcal vanA gene. We have performed further studies revealing five genes encoding homologues of VanY, VanZ, VanH, VanA, and VanX in P. popilliae. The predicted amino acid sequences are similar to those in VanA vancomycin-resistant enterococci: 61% identity for VanY, 21% for VanZ, 74% for VanH, 77% for VanA, and 79% for VanX. The genes in P. popilliae may have been a precursor to or have had ancestral genes in common with vancomycin resistance genes in enterococci. The use of P. popilliae biopesticidal preparations in agricultural practice may have an impact on bacterial resistance in human pathogens.

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