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J Clin Virol. 2000 Feb;16(1):25-40.

Recent advances in the therapy and prevention of CMV infections.

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Program in Infectious Diseases, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109-4417, USA.


The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV has had a major impact on the treatment of CMV disease in HIV-infected individuals. There is mounting evidence that in patients with CMV retinitis who have a sustained response to HAART, CMV maintenance treatment can be discontinued without relapse of retinitis. In HAART-naïve individuals with newly diagnosed CMV retinitis, the optimal timing for the initiation of HAART relative to the start of anti-CMV treatment is currently unknown. New local therapies for CMV retinitis (e.g. ganciclovir implant, the new antisense compound fomivirsen) provide treatment options in situations where high local drug delivery is warranted. A treatment algorithm for CMV disease in the HAART era is proposed. In the transplant setting, ganciclovir and foscarnet remain the major compounds used for treatment of CMV disease. In marrow and stem cell transplant recipients, CMV pneumonia still carries a high mortality. Ganciclovir in combination with CMV-specific immunoglobulin or regular intravenous IG remains the treatment of choice for CMV pneumonia; extended antiviral maintenance for several months is recommended in patients with continued immunosuppression. Preemptive treatment based on virologic markers (e.g. pp65 antigenemia, CMV DNA) has been very successful in reducing the incidence of early CMV disease in the transplant setting. The duration of preemptive treatment should be guided by the underlying immunosuppression and virologic markers. Late CMV disease is a challenge in marrow and stem cell transplant recipients, and occurs increasingly in highly immunosuppressed solid organ transplant recipients as well. Recent advances in prophylaxis strategies include oral ganciclovir for liver transplant recipients and valacyclovir for kidney transplant recipients.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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