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Infect Immun. 2000 Mar;68(3):1034-9.

Shigella flexneri 2a strain CVD 1207, with specific deletions in virG, sen, set, and guaBA, is highly attenuated in humans.

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  • 1Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21201, USA.


A phase 1 clinical trial was conducted among 35 healthy adult volunteers to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity, and shedding of different doses of CVD 1207, a live attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine candidate with specific deletion mutations in virG, sen, set, and guaBA. CVD 1207 retains the ability to invade epithelial cells but cannot effectively spread intercellularly after invasion (DeltavirG), does not produce enterotoxin (Deltasen and Deltaset), and has limited proliferation in vivo (DeltaguaBA). In a consecutive fashion, groups of three to seven subjects ingested a single oral dose of CVD 1207 at an inoculum of either 10(6), 10(7), 10(8), 10(9), or 10(10) CFU. CVD 1207 was remarkably well-tolerated at inocula as high as 10(8) CFU. In comparison, one of 12 subjects who received 10(9) CFU experienced mild diarrhea and another experienced a single episode of emesis. One of five subjects who received 10(10) CFU experienced watery diarrhea and emesis. All subjects who ingested doses of 10(8) to 10(10) CFU excreted the vaccine; in 23 of 25, the duration of excretion was </=3 days. A dose-related, immunoglobulin A antibody-secreting cell (ASC) response to S. flexneri 2a O-specific lipopolysaccharide was seen, with geometric mean peak values of 6.1 to 35.2 ASCs/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) among recipients of 10(7) to 10(10) CFU. The cytokine response to Shigella-specific antigens observed in volunteers' PBMC following vaccination suggested a Th1 pattern with stimulation of gamma interferon and absence of interleukin 4 (IL-4) or IL-5. CVD 1207 represents a Shigella live oral vaccine strain prepared from wild-type S. flexneri 2a by rational use of recombinant DNA technology that achieves a remarkable degree of attenuation compared with earlier recombinant strains, even when administered at high dosage.

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