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Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999;897:291-9.

Adipokinetic hormones. Coupling between biosynthesis and release.

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Biochemical Physiology Research Group, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.


During long-distance flight of migratory locusts, the dramatic energy demand of the flight muscles is controlled by three adipokinetic hormones (AKHs). These peptide hormones regulate the mobilization of lipid and carbohydrate stored in the fat body to serve as energy substrates for the flight muscles. Despite the relatively huge quantities of the three AKHs that are stored in the corpora cardiaca, flight induces a differential 2-4-fold increase in the mRNAs for the three hormones. Moreover, newly synthesized AKHs can be released only during a restricted period of time, suggesting that by far most of the stored hormones are physiologically inactive. This raises the question of how the biosynthetic activity in the AKH-producing cells is coupled to their secretory activity. The present review discusses the potential mechanisms by which generation and release of mixtures of bioactive neurohormones are controlled and how peptidergic neuroendocrine cells cope with variations in physiological stimulation, with the AKH-producing cells serving as a model system.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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