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Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Feb 15;1463(2):307-22.

Cardiolipin, alpha-D-glucopyranosyl, and L-lysylcardiolipin from gram-positive bacteria: FAB MS, monofilm and X-ray powder diffraction studies.

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Institut für Kristallographie, Takustr. 6, D-14195, Berlin, Germany.


Cardiolipin preparations from Streptococcus B, Listeria welshimeri, Staphylococcus aureus, and a glucosyl and lysyl derivative of cardiolipin were analysed for fatty acid composition and fatty acid combinations. Three different fatty acid patterns are described and up to 17 molecular species were identified in Streptococcus B lipids by high resolution FAB MS. The physicochemical properties of these lipids were characterised in the sodium salt form by monofilm experiments and X-ray powder diffraction. All lipids formed stable monofilms. The minimal space requirement of unsubstituted cardiolipin was dictated by the fatty acid pattern. Substitution with L-lysine led to a decrease of the molecular area, substitution with D-glucopyranosyl to an increase. On self assembly at 100% relative humidity, all preparations adopted lamellar structures. They showed a high degree of order, in spite of the heterogeneous fatty acid compositions and numerous fatty acid combinations. The repeat distances in lamellar fluid phase varied between 4.99 and 5. 52 nm, the bilayer thickness between 3.70 and 4.46 nm. Surprising were the low values of sorbed water per molecule of the glucosyl and lysyl derivatives which were 58 and 60%, compared with those of the respective cardiolipin. When Na(+) was replaced as counterion by Ba(2+), the bilayer structure was retained, but the lipids were in the lamellar gel phase and the fatty acids were tilted between 32 and 53 degrees away from the bilayer normal. Wide angle X-ray diffraction studies and electron density profiles are also reported. Particular properties of glucosyl cardiolipin are discussed.

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