Send to

Choose Destination
Toxicol Pathol. 2000 Jan-Feb;28(1):164-70.

Phenotype vs genotype in the evolution of astrocytic brain tumors.

Author information

International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization, Lyon, France.


Astrocytic brain tumors are the most frequent human gliomas and they include a wide range of neoplasms with distinct clinical, histopathologic, and genetic features. Diffuse astrocytomas are predominantly located in the cerebral hemispheres of adults and have an inherent tendency to progress to anaplastic astrocytoma and (secondary) glioblastoma. The majority of glioblastomas develop de novo (primary glioblastomas), without an identifiable less-malignant precursor lesion. These subtypes of glioblastoma evolve through different genetic pathways, affect patients at different ages, and are likely to differ in their responses to therapy. Primary glioblastomas occur in older patients and typically show epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression, PTEN mutations, p16 deletions, and, less frequently, MDM2 amplification. Secondary glioblastomas develop in younger patients and often contain TP53 mutations as their earliest detectable alteration. Morphologic variants of glioblastoma were shown to have intermediate clinical and genetic profiles. The giant cell glioblastoma clinically and genetically occupies a hybrid position between primary (de novo) and secondary glioblastomas. Gliosarcomas show identical gene mutations in the gliomatous and sarcomatous tumor components, which strongly supports the concept that there is a monoclonal origin for gliosarcomas and an evolution of the sarcomatous component due to aberrant mesenchymal differentiation in a highly malignant astrocytic neoplasm.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center