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Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1999 Dec;35(4):325-31.

In vitro evaluation of cefepime and other broad-spectrum beta-lactams in eight medical centers in Thailand. The Thailand Antimicrobial Resistance Study Group.

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Department of Pathology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA.


The introduction of cephalosporins has had an important impact on the resistance rates to several clinically utilized beta-lactam antimicrobial agents. Most Thailand medical centers have not documented the levels of emerging resistant pathogens causing invasive infections. This study shows using reference-quality MIC techniques (Etest, AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden), that carbapenem), "fourth-generation" cephalosporins (cefepime and cefpirome), and piperacillin/tazobactam were the most active agents tested against Gram-negative bacilli (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Serratia spp., indole-positive Proteae, Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus spp. when compared to "third-generation" cephalosporins (ceftazidime and ceftriaxone). The rank order of activity for all species was imipenem (2.9% resistant) > cefepime (7.7%) > piperacillin/tazobactam (11.1%) > cefpirome (13.4%) > ceftriaxone (21.1%) > ceftazidime (29.9%). The incidence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase production among E. coli (15.7%) and K. pneumoniae (45.6%) was significant. Cefepime and imipenem were active against the majority of these isolates. The activity of cefepime was also shown to be very good against, 1) organisms capable of producing AmpC enzymes, 2) staphylococci species that were susceptible to oxacillin, and 3) many strains of nonfermentative Gram-negative bacilli. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Thailand seems to be quite high among certain commonly encountered pathogens, and imipenem and cefepime have activity (susceptible and intermediate potency) against > 90% of these organisms.

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