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Gait Posture. 2000 Feb;11(1):38-45.

Comparison of surface mounted markers and attachment methods in estimating tibial rotations during walking: an in vivo study.

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Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA.


The overall goal of this work was to determine an optimal surface-tracking marker set for tracking motion of the tibia during natural cadence walking. Eleven different marker sets were evaluated. The marker sets differed in the location they were attached to the shank, the method used to attach the marker sets to the segment and the physical characteristics of the marker sets. Angular position during stance for each marker set was expressed relative to the orientation of the tibia as measured using bone anchored markers. A marker set consisting of four markers attached to a rigid shell positioned over the distal lateral shank and attached to the leg using an underwrap attachment yielded the best estimate of tibial rotation. Rotational deviations of+/-2 degrees about the medio-lateral and antero-posterior axes, and+/-4 degrees about the longitudinal axis did occur even when using the optimal set of markers.

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