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J Med Genet. 2000 Feb;37(2):88-94.

Haim-Munk syndrome and Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome are allelic mutations in cathepsin C.

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University of Pittsburgh, School of Dental Medicine, Department of Oral Medicine/Pathology, 628 Salk Hall, 3501 Terrace Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

Erratum in

  • J Med Genet 2001 Jan;38(1):79. Zlorogorski, A [corrected to Zlotogorski, A].


Of the many palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK) conditions, only Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) and Haim-Munk syndrome (HMS) are associated with premature periodontal destruction. Although both PLS and HMS share the cardinal features of PPK and severe periodontitis, a number of additional findings are reported in HMS including arachnodactyly, acro-osteolysis, atrophic changes of the nails, and a radiographic deformity of the fingers. While PLS cases have been identified throughout the world, HMS has only been described among descendants of a religious isolate originally from Cochin, India. Parental consanguinity is a characteristic of many cases of both conditions. Although autosomal recessive transmission of PLS is evident, a more "complex" autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance with phenotypic influences from a closely linked modifying locus has been hypothesised for HMS. Recently, mutations of the cathepsin C gene have been identified as the underlying genetic defect in PLS. To determine if a cathepsin C mutation is also responsible for HMS, we sequenced the gene in affected and unaffected subjects from the Cochin isolate in which both the PLS and HMS phenotypes appear. Here we report identification of a mutation of cathepsin C (exon 6, 2127A--> G) that changes a highly conserved amino acid in the cathepsin C peptide. This mutation segregates with HMS in four nuclear families. Additionally, the existence of a shared common haplotype for genetic loci flanking the cathepsin C gene suggests that affected subjects descended from the Cochin isolate are homozygous for a mutation inherited "identical by descent" from a common ancestor. This finding supports simple autosomal recessive inheritance for HMS in these families. We also report a mutation of the same exon 6 CTSC codon (2126C-->T) in a Turkish family with classical PLS. These findings provide evidence that PLS and HMS are allelic variants of cathepsin C gene mutations.

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