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J Immunol. 2000 Feb 15;164(4):2221-32.

Production of IFN-gamma and IL-10 to Shigella invasins by mononuclear cells from volunteers orally inoculated with a Shiga toxin-deleted Shigella dysenteriae type 1 strain.

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Center for Vaccine Development, Department of Pediatrics, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.


Volunteers were orally administered invasive, non-Shiga toxin-producing Shigella dysenteriae 1 to establish a challenge model to assess vaccine efficacy. In stepwise fashion, four separate groups were given 3 x 10(2), 7 x 10(3), 5 x 10(4), or 7 x 10(5) CFU. Using PBMC, proliferative responses and cytokine production were measured to S. dysenteriae whole-cell preparations and to purified recombinant invasion plasmid Ags (Ipa) C and IpaD. Anti-LPS and anti-Ipa Abs and Ab-secreting cells were also evaluated. Preinoculation PBMC produced considerable quantities of IL-10 and IFN-gamma, probably secreted by monocytes and NK cells, respectively, of the innate immune system. Following inoculation, PBMC from 95 and 87% of volunteers exhibited an increased production of IFN-gamma and IL-10, respectively, in response to Shigella Ags. These increases included responses to IpaC and IpaD among those volunteers receiving the lowest inoculum. No IL-4 or IL-5 responses were detected. Whereas there were no Ab or Ab-secreting cell responses in volunteers receiving the lowest inoculum, other dose groups had moderate to strong anti-LPS and anti-Ipa responses. These results suggest that in humans, type 1 responses play an important role in mucosal and systemic immunity to S. dysentariae 1.

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