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Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):91-101.

Increased H2O2, vascular endothelial growth factor and receptors in the retina of the BBZ/Wor diabetic rat.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville 32610-0226, USA.

Abstract

Hyperglycemia in diabetes induces increased levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive oxygen species generated by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidase. Nontoxic levels of H2O2 increase endothelial cell permeability. Using a model of non-insulin-dependent diabetes, the BBZ/Wor rat, we investigated retinal levels of H2O2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors, VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2 by transmission electron microscopy at sites of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). H2O2 localization was done by the cerium NADH oxidase method, and extravasation of endogenous serum albumin was used to document disruption of the BRB. Higher levels of H2O2 were detected in blood vessels of diabetic (78.7 +/- 4.84%) as compared with vessels from nondiabetic rats (39.0 +/- 4.47%). VEGF immunoreactivity was statistically higher in the inner BRB (24.67 +/- 0.33 colloidal gold particles/63 microm2 vs. 21.52 +/- 0.43 colloidal gold particles/63 microm2, p = .0001) and outer BRB (42.56 +/- 0.45 colloidal gold particles/63 microm2 vs. 15.51 +/- 0.51 colloidal gold particles/63 microm2, p = .0001) of diabetic rats as compared with age matched nondiabetic control rats. VEGF-R1 immunoreactivity was significantly higher in diabetic retinas in both the inner BRB (21.66 +/- 0.75 colloidal gold particles/63 microm2 vs. 12.69 +/- 0.61 colloidal gold particles/63 microm2, p = .0001) and outer BRB (22.76 +/- 2.36 colloidal gold particles/63 microm2 vs. 8.53 +/- 2.67 colloidal gold particles/63 microm2, p = .0013). VEGF-R2 was statistically higher in the inner BRB (8.97 +/- 0.57 colloidal gold particles/63 microm2 versus 7.03 +/- 0.65 colloidal gold particles/63 microm2, p = .0419) but not in the outer BRB (29.42 +/- 1.25 colloidal gold particles/63 microm2 vs. 28.07 +/- 1.42 colloidal gold particles/63 microm2, p = .4889). H2O2 levels correlated with increased VEGF (correlation coefficient = 0.82, p = .001) in this model of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy. These results support that hyperglycemia is one factor that induces retinal endothelial cells in vivo to increase H2O2 via NADH oxidase and stimulates increases in VEGF resulting in disruption of the BRB.

PMID:
10656295
DOI:
10.1016/s0891-5849(99)00216-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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