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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Feb 1;97(3):1143-7.

Toward a protein-protein interaction map of the budding yeast: A comprehensive system to examine two-hybrid interactions in all possible combinations between the yeast proteins.

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  • 1Human Genome Center, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Shirokanedai, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.


Protein-protein interactions play pivotal roles in various aspects of the structural and functional organization of the cell, and their complete description is indispensable to thorough understanding of the cell. As an approach toward this goal, here we report a comprehensive system to examine two-hybrid interactions in all of the possible combinations between proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We cloned all of the yeast ORFs individually as a DNA-binding domain fusion ("bait") in a MATa strain and as an activation domain fusion ("prey") in a MATalpha strain, and subsequently divided them into pools, each containing 96 clones. These bait and prey clone pools were systematically mated with each other, and the transformants were subjected to strict selection for the activation of three reporter genes followed by sequence tagging. Our initial examination of approximately 4 x 10(6) different combinations, constituting approximately 10% of the total to be tested, has revealed 183 independent two-hybrid interactions, more than half of which are entirely novel. Notably, the obtained binary data allow us to extract more complex interaction networks, including the one that may explain a currently unsolved mechanism for the connection between distinct steps of vesicular transport. The approach described here thus will provide many leads for integration of various cellular functions and serve as a major driving force in the completion of the protein-protein interaction map.

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