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Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2000 Jan;17(1):33-54, vi.

Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. Diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment.

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Harris County Podiatric Surgical Residency Program, Houston, Texas, USA.


Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) is a complex multifaceted condition that can affect the lower extremity. Rarely mentioned 20 years ago, today it is the subject of numerous articles, books, and is a topic at most scientific seminars relating to the foot and ankle. It is a muscle imbalance initiated by a rupture, avulsion, or chronic inflammation of the tibialis posterior tendon. With time, it progresses from a flexible to rigid flatfoot deformity. Left untreated, peritalar dislocation and degenerative joint disease may develop. This article discusses the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of PTTD.

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