Send to

Choose Destination
J Invest Dermatol. 2000 Feb;114(2):277-80.

Mutation and allelic loss of the PTEN/MMAC1 gene in primary and metastatic melanoma biopsies.

Author information

*Department of Tumor Cell Biology, Institute of Cancer Biology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark.


The PTEN/MMAC1 gene on chromosome 10q23 encodes a lipid phosphatase with tumor-suppressive properties. Germline PTEN/MMAC1 mutations have been implicated as the predisposing factor in Cowden disease and other hamartoma syndromes, and somatic mutations and deletions have been identified in a wide range of human cancers, including 30-40% of metastatic melanoma cell lines. To study further the possible role of PTEN/MMAC1 in the pathogenesis and progression of malignant melanoma, we examined uncultured specimens from 16 primary and 61 metastatic tumors from 67 patients. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to analyze systematically the coding region of PTEN/MMAC1 and revealed mutations in four of the metastatic samples (7%). Sequence analysis of the mutants identified a 1 bp frameshift insertion, a 2 bp frameshift deletion, an 11 bp frameshift deletion, and a single base substitution resulting in the generation of a premature stop codon. Analysis of two intragenic polymorphisms showed allelic loss in three of eight informative primary tumors (38%) and in 18 of 31 metastatic tumors (58%). One of the mutant cases showed allelic loss, suggesting that both PTEN/MMAC1 alleles were inactivated in this tumor. Altogether, these results suggest that mutation and deletion of PTEN/MMAC1 may contribute to the development and progression of malignant melanoma.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center