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Pflugers Arch. 1999 Dec;439(1-2):56-66.

Evidence for the involvement of K+ channels and K(+)-Cl- cotransport in the regulatory volume decrease of newborn rat cardiomyocytes.

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INSERM U400 - Faculté de Médecine, Créteil, France.


In order to delineate ion transport mechanisms involved in volume homeostasis of freshly isolated newborn rat ventricular myocytes, we investigated the effects of ion substitutions and pharmacological maneuvers upon (1) isotonic volume, (2) hypotonically induced initial swelling, and (3) the subsequent regulatory volume decrease (RVD), as determined by electronic cell sizing. Cardiomyocytes exposed to hypotonic medium (176 mosmol/l) swelled by 51+/-1% of isotonic volume, and they underwent a partial regulatory volume decrease (RVD), reaching a maximum regulation after 30 min (51+/-1% of initial swelling), with a half-time (t1/2) of 6+/-1 min (n=60). RVD was associated with significant cardiomyocyte K+ loss (12+/-4% at 5 min and 15+/-2% of isotonic control after 30 min: n=6, P<0.001), 71% of which was Cl- dependent (P<0.05). Within the 30-min experimental time frame, ouabain, a Na+/K+ pump inhibitor, had no significant effect on RVD (despite an inhibitory trend), cell swelling or on isotonic volume (n=6). Bumetanide (50 microM), a Na+-K+-Cl- co-transport blocker, induced a significant reduction of isotonic cell volume (3+/-2%, n=6. P<0.05), potentiated initial swelling by 16+/-1% (n=8, P<0.02), and it partially inhibited RVD (24+/-11% at 30 min, n=6), whereas Na+ omission had no significant effect on isotonic cell volume, cell swelling or RVD. The effects of bumetanide on initial swelling and RVD were prevented by gadolinium ion (10 microM), a stretch-activated cation channel blocker (n=5). Quinidine (500 microM), a non-selective Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel blocker with no side-effects on K(+)-Cl(-) cotransport, did not modify initial cell swelling, but inhibited RVD (50+/-3% at 5 min, n=9, P<0.01; 22+/-3% at 30 min), an effect which was cancelled by external Ca2+ chelation with EGTA (n=5), and reproduced by tetraethylammonium (TEA, 20 mM), another K+ channel blocker. 4,4'-Diisothiocyanatostilbene 2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS, 100 microM), a non-selective swelling-activated Cl- channel blocker with marginal side-effects on K(+)-Cl(-)cotransport, did not modify initial swelling, but inhibited RVD to the same extent as quinidine (42+/-3% at 5 min, and 23+/-3% at 30 min, n=15, P<0.05), whereas hypotonic Cl(-)-free solution had no effect on isotonic volume, but potentiated initial swelling by 16+/-2% (P<0.05) and fully inhibited RVD (n=5, P<0.001). R(+)-[(2-n-Butyl-6,7-dichloro-2-cyclopentyl-2,3-dihydro-1-oxo-1H-inde n-5yl)-oxy] acetic acid) (DIOA, 80 microM), a K(+)-Cl- cotransport blocker (with inhibitory potency toward Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels), inhibited 87+/-5% of the RVD process at 5 min (P<0.001) and 56+/-16% at 30 min (P<0.001), whereas it had a small effect on isotonic volume (+4%, P<0.01) and initial cell swelling (+2%, N.S.; n=9). In contrast to quinidine, DIOA was able to inhibit Ca(2+)-omission-resistant RVD (full inhibition at 5 min, and 56+/-9% at 30 min; P<0.01, n=5). In conclusion, our results suggest that at least three distinct ion transport mechanisms are involved in the RVD in newborn rat cardiomyocytes: (1) K+ and Cl-channels, (2) K(+)-Cl- cotransport, and (3) Na(+)-K(+)-Cl- co-transport.

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