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Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Feb;71(2):450-7.

Fat and carbohydrate balances during adaptation to a high-fat.

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Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70808, USA.



Dietary fat contents are highly variable. Failure to compensate for the positive fat balance that occurs during the shift to a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet by increasing energy expenditure or by decreasing food intake may result in the gain of fat mass.


The objective of this study was to investigate the time course of fat oxidation during adaptation to an isoenergetic high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet.


After a 5-d control diet, dietary fat was increased from 37% of energy to 50% of energy for 4 d in 6 healthy, young lean men. Respiratory quotient and substrate macronutrient oxidation and balance were measured in a respiratory chamber. Fasting concentrations of insulin, glucose, and triacylglycerol; maximal oxygen consumption (f1.gif" BORDER="0">O(2)max) during treadmill exercise; and free-living energy expenditure were determined. Body fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and visceral adipose tissue by computerized tomography.


Compared with the baseline diet, the high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet resulted in positive fat and protein balances and a negative carbohydrate balance. Insulin concentration and the postabsorptive respiratory quotient were positively correlated with the fat balance during the high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet, whereas f1.gif" BORDER="0">O(2)max during treadmill exercise was negatively related to fat balance. With use of stepwise regression, f1.gif" BORDER="0">O(2)max was the best predictor of fat balance. There was a negative correlation between fat balance and carbohydrate balance (r(2) = 0.88).


Both baseline insulin concentration and f1.gif" BORDER="0">O(2)max during treadmill exercise predict fat balance during the shift to a high-fat diet under isoenergetic conditions.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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