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Development. 2000 Feb;127(4):667-77.

Structure, function and evolution of sex-determining systems in Dipteran insects.

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Zoological Institute, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland.


Nature has evolved an astonishing variety of genetic and epigenetic sex-determining systems which all achieve the same result, the generation of two sexes. Genetic and molecular analyses, mainly performed during the last 20 years, have gradually revealed the mechanisms that govern sexual differentiation in a few model organisms. In this review, we will introduce the sex-determining system of Drosophila and compare the fruitfly to the housefly Musca domestica and other Dipteran insects. Despite the ostensible variety, all these insects use the same basic strategy: a primary genetic signal that is different in males and females, a key gene that responds to the primary signal, and a double-switch gene that eventually selects between two alternative sexual programmes. These parallels, however, do not extend to the molecular level. Except for the double-switch gene doublesex at the end of the cascade, no functional homologies were found between more distantly related insects. In particular, Sex-lethal, the key gene that controls sexual differentiation in Drosophila, does not have a sex-determining function in any other genus studied so far. These results show that sex-determining cascades, in comparison to other regulatory pathways, evolve much more rapidly.

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