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J Paediatr Child Health. 1999 Dec;35(6):558-61.

Antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from children.

Author information

1
National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. dilruba.nasrin@anu.edu.au

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the level of antibiotic resistance in pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) isolated from nasal swabs of healthy children.

METHOD:

Cross-sectional community survey.

SETTING:

Survey was undertaken in general practice settings in Canberra during March and April 1998.

SUBJECTS:

Four hundred and sixty-one children under 3 years of age enrolled in general practice trial of clinical practice guidelines for antibiotic use.

OUTCOME MEASURES:

Resistance to penicillin, erythromycin, co-trimoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and cefotaxime among the isolates of S. pneumoniae.

RESULTS:

A total of 461 nasal swabs were collected and S. pneumoniae was isolated from 171 (37.1%). Penicillin resistance was found in 12.3% of these isolates, with high level resistance in 0.6%. Resistance rates were higher for cotrimoxazole (44.4%) and erythromycin (18.1%) than for penicillin. Multidrug resistance was found in 19% of these isolates. There was a significant association between the attendance at a day care centre and carriage of pneumococcus (53% vs 32%, odds ratio (OR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-3.7, P < 0.001). Children who attended day care centers and had received antibiotics during the 4 months prior to swab collection were three times more likely to carry an antibiotic-resistant isolate than children who had neither attended a day care centre nor received antibiotics (68% vs 40%, OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.2-8.4, P = 0.02).

CONCLUSION:

The level of antibiotic resistance in pneumococci from healthy children was of concern. Carriage of pneumococcus was significantly higher in children who attended a day care centre. Resistance was significantly correlated with antibiotic use in combination with day-care attendance. These findings warrant more judicious use of antibiotics in children.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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