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J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2000;30 Suppl:S36-44.

Milk-induced reflux in infants less than one year of age.

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1st Divisione Pediatria, Gastroenterologia, Ospedale dei Bambini G. Di Cristina, Palermo, Italy.


Cow's milk allergy (CMA) and gastroesophageal reflux are considered to be among the most common disturbances in infants less than 1 year of age. In recent years, the relationship existing between these two entities has been investigated and some important conclusions have been reached: In just under half the cases of GER in infants less than 1 year of age there is an association with CMA; in a high proportion of cases, GER is not only CMA-associated but also CMA-induced; the frequency of this association should induce pediatricians to screen for possible concomitant CMA in all infants with GER less than 1 year old; with the exception of some patients with mild typical CMA manifestations (diarrhea, dermatitis, or rhinitis), the symptoms of GER associated with CMA are the same as those observed in primary GER; immunologic tests are useful in a suspected association between GER and CMA; and subjects with GER secondary to CMA show a typical pH-monitoring tracing pattern, characterized by a progressive, slow decrease in esophageal pH between feedings. This article reviews the main features of the two diseases, stressing the aspects in common between them and comments on all the listed points.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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