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FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2000 Jan 1;31(1):73-86.

Turnover of glucose and acetate coupled to reduction of nitrate, ferric iron and sulfate and to methanogenesis in anoxic rice field soil.

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1
Max-Planck-Institut für terrestrische Mikrobiologie, Karl-von-Frisch-Strasse, D-35043, Marburg, Germany

Abstract

Turnover of glucose and acetate in the presence of active reduction of nitrate, ferric iron and sulfate was investigated in anoxic rice field soil by using [U-(14)C]glucose and [2-(14)C]acetate. The turnover of glucose was not much affected by addition of ferrihydrite or sulfate, but was partially inhibited (60%) by addition of nitrate. Nitrate addition also strongly reduced acetate production from glucose while ferrihydrite and sulfate addition did not. These results demonstrate that ferric iron and sulfate reducers did not outcompete fermenting bacteria for glucose at endogenous concentrations. Nitrate reducers may have done so, but glucose fermentation may also have been inhibited by accumulation of toxic denitrification intermediates (nitrite, NO, N(2)O). Addition of nitrate resulted in complete inhibition of CH(4) production from [U-(14)C]glucose and [2-(14)C]acetate. However, addition of ferrihydrite or sulfate decreased the production of (14)CH(4) from [U-(14)C]glucose by only 70 and 65%, respectively. None of the electron acceptors significantly increased the production of (14)CO(2) from [U-(14)C]glucose, but all increased the production of (14)CO(2) from [2-(14)C]acetate. Uptake of acetate was faster in the presence of either nitrate, ferrihydrite or sulfate than in the unamended control. Addition of ferrihydrite and sulfate reduced (14)CH(4) production from [2-(14)C]acetate by 83 and 92%, respectively. Chloroform completely inhibited the methanogenic consumption of acetate. It also inhibited the oxidation of acetate, completely in the presence of sulfate, but not in the presence of nitrate or ferrihydrite. Our results show that, besides the possible toxic effect of products of nitrate reduction (NO, NO(2)(-) and N(2)O) on methanogens, nitrate reducers, ferric iron reducers and sulfate reducers were active enough to outcompete methanogens for acetate and channeling the flow of electrons away from CH(4) towards CO(2) production.

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