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Vaccine. 2000 Jan 31;18(14):1344-50.

Cytokine mRNAs in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue during influenza virus infection and nasal vaccination.

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Department of Pathology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama 1-23-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.


Intranasal immunization with a current inactivated influenza vaccine together with an adjuvant (cholera toxin B subunit supplemented with a trace amount of whole toxin, CTB*) was confirmed in BALB/c mice to mimic influenza virus (A/PR/8/34, H1N1) infection with respect to mucosal IgA antibody responses, in which IgA antibody-forming cell responses in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) were involved with a peak around 7 days after infection or vaccination. Next, the expression of various cytokine mRNAs in the NALT was compared in mice either infected with viruses or immunized with CTB*-combined vaccine, to examine Th cell and cytokine regulation of mucosal IgA antibody responses. In infected mice, strong IL-2, weak IL-4, strong IL-6 and strong IFN-gamma mRNA expressions were induced during early days of infection; especially, IFN-gamma mRNA was expressed by both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells around 7 days after infection. In mice given CTB*-combined vaccine, weak IL-2, strong IL-4, strong IL-6 and weak IFN-gamma mRNA expressions were induced during early days of vaccination; especially, IL-4 mRNA was expressed by CD4(+) T cells. Thus, IL-6 mRNAs were expressed strongly in both infected and vaccinated mice. The IFN-gamma-rich cytokine mRNA profiles in the infected mice were reflected upon serum IgG2a-rich Ab responses, while the IL-4-rich profiles in the vaccinated mice were reflected upon the IgG1-rich Ab responses. Thus, influenza virus infection and CTB*-combined nasal vaccine induced Th1 dominant and Th2 dominant cytokine profiles, respectively, while the similarity of mucosal IgA antibody responses between infection and vaccination could be explained by the appearance of IL-6 mRNAs.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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