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Mol Pharmacol. 2000 Jan;57(1):2-12.

Reduced apoptosis after nerve growth factor and serum withdrawal: conversion of tetrameric glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase to a dimer.

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Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.


Antisense oligonucleotides against the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) are able to reduce some forms of apoptosis. In those forms, overall GAPDH levels increase and the enzyme accumulates in the nucleus. The monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitor, (-)-deprenyl (DEP), its metabolite (-)-desmethyldeprenyl, and a tricyclic DEP analog, CGP3466, can reduce apoptosis independently of MAO-B inhibition and have been found to bind to GAPDH. We used neuronally differentiated PC12 cells to show that DEP, DES, and CGP3466 reduce apoptosis caused by serum and nerve growth factor withdrawal over the concentration range of 10(-) to 10(-13) M. We provide evidence that the DEP-like compounds bind to GAPDH in the PC12 cells and that they prevent both the apoptotic increases in GAPDH levels and nuclear accumulation of GAPDH. In vitro, the compounds enhanced the conversion of NAD(+) to NADH by GAPDH in the presence of AUUUA-rich RNA and converted GAPDH from its usual tetrameric form to a dimeric form. Using cell lysates, we found a marked increase in rates of NAD(+) to NADH conversion in early apoptosis, which was returned toward control values by the DEP-like compounds. Accordingly, the DEP-like compounds appear to decrease glycolysis by preventing the GAPDH increases in early apoptosis. GAPDH dimer may not have the capacity to contribute to apoptosis in a similar manner to the tetramer, which might account for the antiapoptotic capacity of the compounds. These actions on GAPDH, rather than MAO-B inhibition, may contribute to the improvements in Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases found with DEP treatment.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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