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J Biol Chem. 2000 Jan 7;275(1):571-9.

Coregulator small nuclear RING finger protein (SNURF) enhances Sp1- and steroid receptor-mediated transcription by different mechanisms.

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Department of Physiology, Institute of Biomedicine, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.


The small nuclear RING finger protein SNURF is not only a coactivator in steroid receptor-dependent transcription but also activates transcription from steroid-independent promoters. In this work, we show that SNURF, via the RING finger domain, enhances protein binding to Sp1 elements/GC boxes and interacts and cooperates with Sp1 in transcriptional activation. The activation of androgen receptor (AR) function requires regions other than the RING finger of SNURF, and SNURF does not influence binding of AR to cognate DNA elements. The zinc finger region (ZFR) together with the hinge region of AR are sufficient for contacting SNURF. The nuclear localization signal in the boundary between ZFR and the hinge region participates in the association of AR with SNURF, and a receptor mutant lacking the C-terminal part of the bipartite nuclear localization signal shows attenuated response to coexpressed SNURF. Some AR ZFR point mutations observed in patients with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome or male breast cancer impair the interaction of AR with SNURF and also render AR refractory to the transcription-activating effect of SNURF. Collectively, SNURF modulates the transcriptional activities of androgen receptor and Sp1 via different domains, and it may act as a functional link between steroid- and Sp1-regulated transcription.

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