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J Biol Chem. 2000 Jan 7;275(1):215-22.

Regulation of amyloid precursor protein processing by presenilin 1 (PS1) and PS2 in PS1 knockout cells.

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Department of Pharmacology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA.


The presenilin 1 (PS1) and PS2 proteins are thought to play roles in processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP), but the nature of this role is not fully understood. Recent studies have shown that PS1 is necessary for cleavage of APP at the gamma-secretase site. We now show that PS1 and PS2 participate in other aspects of APP processing. Fibroblasts generated from PS1 knockout mice have increased levels of the APP cleavage products, secreted APP (APPs), and APP C-terminal fragments, but lower secretion of APPs and Abeta. We have also observed that loss of PS1 prevents protein kinase C or extracellular regulated kinase from increasing production of the APP cleavage products, APPs, and APP C-terminal fragments. Transfection of PS1 -/- cells with PS1 restores the responsiveness of APP processing to protein kinase C and extracellular regulated kinase. This suggests that the changes in APP processing in PS1 -/- cells result strictly from the absence of PS1. Transfection of PS1 -/- cells with PS2 is also able to correct the deficits in APP secretion, which suggests that the PS2 also has the ability to regulate APP processing. Finally, transfection of the truncated PS2 construct, Alg3, into cells lacking PS1 increases APP C-terminal fragments. This suggests that Alg3 can interfere with the processing of APP by PS2. These data point to roles for both PS1 and PS2 in regulating APP processing and suggest that the role of these proteins also includes coupling APP to signal transduction pathways.

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