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Sleep. 1999 Dec 15;22(8):1128-33.

Practice parameters for the nonpharmacologic treatment of chronic insomnia. An American Academy of Sleep Medicine report. Standards of Practice Committee of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

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Neurology Department, Louisiana State University Medical Center, Shreveport, USA.


Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint reported to physicians. Treatment has traditionally involved medication. Behavioral approaches have been available for decades, but lack of physician awareness and training, difficulty in obtaining reimbursements, and questions about efficacy have limited their use. These practice parameters review the current evidence with regards to a variety of nonpharmacologic treatments for insomnia. Using a companion paper which provides a background review, the available literature was analyzed. The evidence was graded by previously reported criteria of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine with references to American Psychological Association criteria. Treatments considered include: stimulus control, progressive muscle relaxation, paradoxical intention, biofeedback, sleep restriction, multicomponent cognitive behavioral therapy, sleep hygiene education, imagery training, and cognitive therapy. Improved experimental design has significantly advanced the process of evaluation of nonpharmacologic treatments for insomnia using guidelines outlined by the American Psychological Association (APA). Recommendations for individual therapies using the American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommendation levels for each are: Stimulus Control (Standard); Progressive Muscle Relaxation, Paradoxical Intention, and Biofeedback (Guidelines); Sleep Restriction, and Multicomponent Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (Options); Sleep Hygiene Education, Imagery Training, and Cognitive Therapy had insufficient evidence to be recommended as a single therapy. Optimal duration of therapy, who should perform the treatments, long term outcomes and safety concerns, and the effect of treatment on quality of life are questions in need of future research.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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