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Addiction. 1999 Aug;94(8):1125-39.

Privatizing alcohol sales and alcohol consumption: evidence and implications.

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Addiction Research Foundation Division, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Canada.



To provide an overview of recent privatization/deregulation experiences in North America and other settings, in order to draw conclusions about the impacts that might be expected from such changes on rates of alcohol consumption and related problems.


Critical review of research evidence on the effect of changes in availability, particularly changes in physical availability and economic availability that typically accompany privatization of alcohol retail monopolies.


Deregulation/privatization experiences commonly involve higher density of outlets, longer hours or more days of sale, changes in price, a strong orientation to commercial aspects of alcohol sales and the introduction of new vested economic interests into alcohol management arrangements in the jurisdiction. In many instances these changes in access to alcohol are accompanied by an increase in the per capita rates of consumption. In the short term changes in prices are likely to either increase or demonstrate opposite patterns for beverages with different base prices. Longer-term patterns point to a decline in real price with privatization, which very probably stimulates per capita alcohol sales.


The existing evaluation literature on the subject of privatization has tended to focus on examining the net short-term results in terms of alcohol consumption levels. Overall, there are too few studies employing adequate statistical methodologies to explore the underlying causes of changing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. Finally, seven specific suggestions that may assist future studies are discussed.

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