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Hepatology. 2000 Jan;31(1):49-53.

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to type 1 autoimmune hepatitis.

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Centre for Liver Research, Faculty of Clinical Medical Sciences, The Medical School, University of Newcastle, Framlington Place, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.


Genetic susceptibility to type 1 autoimmune hepatitis is indicated by a preponderance of female subjects and strong associations with human leukocyte antigens (HLA) DRB1*0301 and DRB1*0401. The gene encoding cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) on chromosome 2q33 may also influence autoimmunity. To determine the frequency and significance of the exon 1 adenine (A)-guanine (G) base-exchange polymorphism for CTLA-4 in patients with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis, 155 northern European Caucasoid patients and 102 ethnically-matched control subjects were tested by polymerase chain reaction. The genotype distribution was significantly different in patients compared to controls (AA = 50/155 patients vs. 51/102 controls; AG = 84/155 patients vs. 38/102 controls; GG = 21/155 patients vs. 13/102 controls, chi(2) = 8.94, P =.011). This difference was caused by a significant over-representation of the G allele in patients compared to controls (105/155 patients vs. 51/102 controls, chi(2) = 8.34, P =.004, odds ratio = 2.12). The GG genotype was associated with a significantly higher mean serum aspartate transaminase level (P =. 03), greater frequency of antibodies to thyroid microsomal antigens (P =.004) and was found more commonly in patients with HLA DRB1*0301 (P =.02). Treatment outcomes, however, were not affected by the genotype. The CTLA-4 G allele is more common in patients with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis and may represent a second susceptibility allele. Furthermore, there may be synergy between the HLA-DRB1*0301 and the GG genotype in terms of disease risk.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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