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Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 1999 Nov;7(4):347-53.

Effects of abstinence on cigarette smoking among outpatients with schizophrenia.

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Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, Burlington, 05401, USA.


The authors of this study examined the effects of brief smoking abstinence on smoking among 6 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Before 6 of 12 experimental sessions, participants were required to provide breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples indicative of smoking abstinence; before the remaining sessions, participants provided CO samples indicating no abstinence. During sessions, participants obtained smoking opportunities (2 puffs/opportunity) under either fixed ratio-1 or progressive ratio (PR) schedules of reinforcement. Abstinence increased smoking under both schedules and increased breakpoint for smoking under the PR schedule. These data offer further evidence that smoking by individuals with schizophrenia is orderly, operant behavior that is modulated, at least in part, by variables that also affect smoking in people without major mental illness.

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