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Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1999 Dec;9(6):718-27.

Internal models for motor control and trajectory planning.

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ATR Human Information Processing Research Laboratories, ERATO, JST, Kawato Dynamic Brain Project, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, 619-0288, Japan.


A number of internal model concepts are now widespread in neuroscience and cognitive science. These concepts are supported by behavioral, neurophysiological, and imaging data; furthermore, these models have had their structures and functions revealed by such data. In particular, a specific theory on inverse dynamics model learning is directly supported by unit recordings from cerebellar Purkinje cells. Multiple paired forward inverse models describing how diverse objects and environments can be controlled and learned separately have recently been proposed. The 'minimum variance model' is another major recent advance in the computational theory of motor control. This model integrates two furiously disputed approaches on trajectory planning, strongly suggesting that both kinematic and dynamic internal models are utilized in movement planning and control.

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