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Microbes Infect. 1999 Apr;1(5):377-84.

Antibiotics and Clostridium difficile.

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Department of Microbiology, University of Leeds and The General Infirmary, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK.


Clostridium difficile is now established as a major nosocomial pathogen. C. difficile infection is seen almost exclusively as a complication of antibiotic therapy, and is particularly associated with clindamycin and third-generation cephalosporins. Depletion of the indigenous gut microflora by antibiotic therapy has long been established as a major factor in the disease. However, the direct influence of antimicrobials upon virulence mechanisms such as toxin production and adhesion in the bowel, and the exact mechanisms by which the organism causes disease remain to be elucidated.

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