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Int J Occup Saf Ergon. 1998 Jan;4(2):137-152. doi: 10.1080/10803548.1998.11076386.

Effect of Footwear Insulation on Thermal Responses in the Cold.

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a National Institute for Working Life , Sweden.


The influence of footwear insulation on foot skin temperature in the cold at low activity was investigated. Simultaneously, the thermal and pain sensations, and the influence of steel toe cap were studied. Eight participants were exposed for 85 min to 3 environmental temperatures ( + 3, -12, and -25°C) wearing 5 different boots. Insulation of footwear was determined with thermal foot model. The study showed the importance of insulation for keeping feet warm. Other factors, such as wetness and vasomotor response, however, modified the thermal response. The most affected parts were toes and heels. Cold and pain sensations were connected with considerably lower temperatures in these local points. No significant differences were observed between boots with and without steel toe cap.


cold; foot skin temperature; insulation of footwear; thermal sensation

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