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Int J Oncol. 2000 Jan;16(1):81-96.

Vaccination against human cancers (review).

Author information

1
Cancer Institute, St. Joseph's Hospital, Tampa, FL 33607, USA.

Abstract

Classical and molecular immunological means of active tumor-specific immunization against human cancers yielded whole cell or tumor cell lysate vaccines of preventive value (reduced relapse rates) and dendritic cell-peptide or genetically engineered vaccines that may induce remissions even in metastatic disease. Active tumor-specific immunization was often successful in the past 50 years against experimental tumors maintained in the laboratory. During the epochs of classical and molecular immunology several vaccines were generated and used for the reduction of relapse rates of human cancer after surgical removal of the primary or metastatic tumors. Whole cell vaccines consist of X-irradiated autologous or allogeneic tumor cells coadministered with immunostimulants (BCG, Detox). Tumor cells haptenized biologically (as in viral oncolysates) or chemically were also used. Dendritic cell vaccines are prepared by transfection or transduction with tumor antigen-encoding DNA or by pulsing the cells with antigenic peptides in vitro; or collecting dendritic cells that engulfed apoptotic tumor cell DNA and/or peptide antigens in vivo for reinjection into the patient. Genetically engineered tumor cells are prepared in vitro to express MHC and peptides, costimulatory molecules (B7.1) and cyto- or lymphokines (interferons, interleukins, hematopoietic growth factors) for vaccination of patients. Antibody- and immune T cell-mediated immune reactions to autologous tumor cells are newly generated and/or quantitatively increased in immunized patients but do not always correlate with clinical response. Most vaccines are claimed to have reduced relapse rates presumably by inducing effective host immunity against micrometastases. Dendritic cell-peptide vaccines could induce partial or occasionally complete remissions in metastatic disease. The wrong antigenic presentation may result in tolerance induction toward the tumor; occasionally tumor enhancement may occur. Human tumor antigens when presented appropriately (with costimulatory molecules and with IL-2, IL-12) break the host's natural tolerance toward its tumor and induce rejection strength immune reactions even in patients with metastatic disease. Immune T cells thus generated could be collected for adoptive immunotherapy. For successful active specific immunization against human cancers the understanding of the immunoevasive maneuvers of the tumor cell (through FasL --> Fas; TRAIL; CD40L --> CD40; TGFbeta etc. systems) is essential.

PMID:
10601552
DOI:
10.3892/ijo.16.1.81
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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