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Biologicals. 1999 Jun;27(2):61-9.

Development of acellular pertussis vaccines.

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Laboratory of Bacterial Toxins, Department of Bacteriology, National Institute of Health, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-Ku, Tokyo, 162, Japan.


In 1974, the authors reported the isolation and characterization of protective antigens of Bordetella pertussis in mice. With this information, an acellular pertussis vaccine was developed, composed mainly of pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA). Substances causing side effects, especially lipopoly sacahoride (LPS) or endotoxin that cause fever, were removed, and detoxification of the PT by formaldehyde with retention of potency was achieved. In 1981, an acellular pertussis vaccine called the "Adsorbed Purified Pertussis Vaccine" was approved in Japan, in place of the whole-cell pertussis vaccine. The acellular pertussis vaccine has been widely accepted as safer and more efficacious in Japan. Since 1981, intense surveillance has shown that there are only rare adverse reactions and that pertussis has virtually been eliminated in Japan. Evaluation of active immunization with highly purified and pharmacologically inert PT and FHA and passive immunization with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, provide quantitative data about the vaccine-induced immunity in mice. Finally, it was discovered that the PT toxoid in the vaccine is the major and essential protective antigen. The toxoid of PT should be sufficient for protection against pertussis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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