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Ann Plast Surg. 1999 Dec;43(6):598-605.

Modified temporalis muscle transfer for paralytic eyelids.

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Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Celal Bayar University Medical School, Manisa, Turkey.


The major problems in paralytic eyelids are the inability to close the eye, lower lid sagging, and epiphora. The upper eyelid is responsible for most of the opening and closing of the eye, whereas a lower eyelid positioned properly against the globe is necessary for collection and flow of the tear fluid. Modification of temporalis muscle transfer, a classic technique, was planned to restore these functions selectively in paralytic eyelids. Twelve unilateral and one bilateral irreversible facial paralysis patients with different degrees of lagophthalmos and ectropion were included. Twice as much muscle mass (in thickness) to the upper eyelid than the lower was taken and passed submuscularly 5 to 6 mm away from the limbus for stronger motion of the upper eyelid, and a thinner muscle mass was passed subcutaneously beneath the lower cilia for longevity of the correction of ectropion and epiphora. Fixation of these strips was performed to the medial canthal ligament and 3 to 4 mm above it. The average duration of follow-up was 35.5 months. Excellent eyelid closure and correction of ectropion and epiphora were achieved with one procedure in all patients without creating a cosmetic deformity.

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