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Plant Cell. 1999 Dec;11(12):2379-91.

Phosphorylation of Thr-948 at the C terminus of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase creates a binding site for the regulatory 14-3-3 protein.

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Department of Plant Biochemistry, Lund University, P.O. Box 117, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.


The plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase is activated by the binding of 14-3-3 protein to the C-terminal region of the enzyme, thus forming an H(+)-ATPase-14-3-3 complex that can be stabilized by the fungal toxin fusicoccin. A novel 14-3-3 binding motif, QQXYpT(948)V, at the C terminus of the H(+)-ATPase is identified and characterized, and the protein kinase activity in the plasma membrane fraction that phosphorylates this threonine residue in the H(+)-ATPase is identified. A synthetic peptide that corresponds to the C-terminal 16 amino acids of the H(+)-ATPase and that is phosphorylated on Thr-948 prevents the in vitro activation of the H(+)-ATPase that is obtained in the presence of recombinant 14-3-3 and fusicoccin. Furthermore, binding of 14-3-3 to the H(+)-ATPase in the absence of fusicoccin is absolutely dependent on the phosphorylation of Thr-948, whereas binding of 14-3-3 in the presence of fusicoccin occurs independently of phosphorylation but still involves the C-terminal motif YTV. Finally, by complementing yeast that lacks its endogenous H(+)-ATPase with wild-type and mutant forms of the Nicotiana plumbaginifolia H(+)-ATPase isoform PMA2, we provide physiological evidence for the importance of the phosphothreonine motif in 14-3-3 binding and, hence, in the activation of the H(+)-ATPase in vivo. Indeed, replacing Thr-948 in the plant H(+)-ATPase with alanine is lethal because this mutant fails to functionally replace the yeast H(+)-ATPase. Considering the importance of the motif QQXYpTV for 14-3-3 binding and yeast growth, this motif should be of vital importance for regulating H(+)-ATPase activity in the plant and thus for plant growth.

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