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Blood. 1999 Dec 15;94(12):4156-65.

A key role of adenosine diphosphate in the irreversible platelet aggregation induced by the PAR1-activating peptide through the late activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase.

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Institut Fédératif de Recherche en Immunologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire, INSERM U 326, Hôpital Purpan, Toulouse, France.


Although adenosine diphosphate (ADP), per se, is a weak platelet agonist, its role as a crucial cofactor in human blood platelet functions has now been clearly demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. The molecular basis of the ADP-induced platelet activation is starting to be understood since the discovery that 2 separate P2 purinergic receptors may be involved simultaneously in the activation process. However, little is known about how ADP plays its role as a cofactor in platelet activation and which signaling pathway initiated by a specific agonist can be modulated by the released ADP. To investigate these points, we took advantage of a model of platelet activation through the thrombin receptor PAR1 in which both ADP scavengers and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) inhibitors have been shown to transform the classical irreversible aggregation into a reversible one. We have observed that, among the different PI 3-kinase products, the accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4)P(2)] was dramatically and specifically attenuated when ADP was removed by apyrase treatment. A comparison between the effects of PI 3-kinase inhibitors and apyrase strongly suggest that the late, ADP-dependent, PtdIns(3,4)P(2) accumulation is necessary for PAR1-induced irreversible aggregation. Using selective antagonists, we found that the effect of ADP was due to the ADP receptor coupled to inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Finally, we found that both ADP and PI 3-kinase play an important role in PAR1-dependent reorganization of the cytoskeleton through a control of myosin heavy chain translocation and the stable association of signaling complexes with the actin cytoskeleton.

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