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J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1999 Nov-Dec;23(6):984-93.

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: review of how imaging affects staging.

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Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore.


Imaging plays an important role in the staging of carcinoma of the nasopharynx. Accurate staging is necessary as the treatment is directly dependent on stage. Clinical examination provides information on mucosal involvement but is unable to determine the deep extension or presence of skull base invasion or intracranial spread. The 1997 International Union Against Cancer (UICC) and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging manuals were a collaborative project that provided a unified classification for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The majority of staging can be identified only on imaging and not by clinical examination. The intent of this article is to provide information on the specific imaging findings that will directly affect the stage and treatment of NPC.

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