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Surv Ophthalmol. 1999 Nov-Dec;44(3):215-25.

Controversies in the management of open-globe injuries involving the posterior segment.

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Retina Associates of Cleveland, Ohio, USA.


There are numerous unresolved issues and controversies regarding the management of open-globe injuries involving the posterior segment. These areas include, but are not limited to, the following issues. Although vitrectomy has been shown to improve visual outcomes and allow retention of the eye in many cases, the extent of visual improvement is often limited because of the nature of the injury. Timing of vitrectomy surgery has been and will continue to be debated by proponents of early versus delayed intervention. The multiple features of acute ocular injury make it very difficult to interpret retrospective data regarding the most appropriate timing for surgical intervention. The use of prophylactic cryotherapy, in the setting of a scleral laceration with possible retinal damage, is not as controversial at present, as there is now sufficient data indicating that cryotherapy may actually exacerbate intraocular proliferation and worsen the situation. The role and benefit of a prophylactic scleral buckle is very widely contested, and it is not known if it truly decreases the risk of subsequent retinal detachment. Another area of debate centers on the use of antibiotics. When there is a known clinical infection, intravitreal antibiotics are the mainstays of therapy. However, in the absence of clinical infection, the use of prophylactic antibiotics and their routes of administration are quite controversial. Although there are significant data regarding the use of antibiotics in the postoperative setting, this information cannot be extrapolated into the setting of open-globe injuries, as organisms and virulence factors differ. Similarly, the use of vitrectomy versus vitreous tap in the setting of traumatic endophthalmitis is not fully resolved, although vitrectomy is used in most cases to repair concurrent damage from the injury itself. Finally, the placement of intraocular lenses in the acute trauma setting is controversial, as the risk of complications is quite high. Prospective, controlled clinical studies have not been done. This article reviews pertinent data regarding these management issues and controversies, and provides recommendations for treatment based on the available published data and the authors' personal experience.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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