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Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Dec 6;1473(1):96-107.

Importance of glycosidases in mammalian glycoprotein biosynthesis.

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McGill Cancer Centre, McGill University, 3655 Drummond Street, Montréal, Que., Canada.


Processing glycosidases play an important role in N-glycan biosynthesis in mammalian cells by trimming Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) and thus providing the substrates for the formation of complex and hybrid structures by Golgi glycosyltransferases. Processing glycosidases also play a role in the folding of newly formed glycoproteins and in endoplasmic reticulum quality control. The properties and molecular nature of mammalian processing glycosidases are described in this review. Membrane-bound alpha-glucosidase I and soluble alpha-glucosidase II of the endoplasmic reticulum remove the alpha1,2-glucose and alpha1,3-glucose residues, respectively, beginning immediately following transfer of Glc(3)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) to nascent polypeptides. The alpha-glucosidases participate in glycoprotein folding mediated by calnexin and calreticulin by forming the monoglucosylated high mannose oligosaccharides required for the interaction with the chaperones. In some mammalian cells, Golgi endo alpha-mannosidase provides an alternative pathway for removal of glucose residues. Removal of alpha1,2-linked mannose residues begins in the endoplasmic reticulum where trimming of mannose residues in the endoplasmic reticulum has been implicated in the targeting of malfolded glycoproteins for degradation. Removal of mannose residues continues in the Golgi with the action of alpha1, 2-mannosidases IA and IB that can form Man(5)GlcNAc(2) and of alpha-mannosidase II that removes the alpha1,3- and alpha1,6-linked mannose from GlcNAcMan(5)GlcNAc(2) to form GlcNAcMan(3)GlcNAc(2). These membrane-bound Golgi enzymes have been cloned and shown to have very distinct patterns of tissue-specific expression. There are also broad specificity alpha-mannosidases that can trim Man(4-9)GlcNAc(2) to Man(3)GlcNAc(2), and provide an alternative pathway toward complex oligosaccharide formation. Cloning of the remaining alpha-mannosidases will be required to evaluate their specific functions in glycoprotein maturation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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