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Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 1999 Oct 5;49 Suppl 1:S311-4.

Voice problems in children: pathogenesis and diagnosis.

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  • 1The Institute of Phoniatrics, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.


Voice problems seem to concern more than one child out of twenty, and may concern quality (hoarseness), resonance (nasality), pitch (mutation) and loudness. The main etiological categories are defined as organic (congenital/acquired), functional/habitual (especially due to voice abuse and misuse), and psychogenic (especially mutation disorders). Flexible transnasal endoscopes of small diameter (2.3 mm) are optimally suited for accurate endoscopic diagnosis, especially if combined with video-recording and stroboscopy.

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