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Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Dec;27(12):1488-95.

Characterization of the in vitro biotransformation of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine by human hepatic cytochromes P-450.

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Department of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Ridgefield, Connecticut 06877, USA.


Nevirapine (NVP), a non-nucleoside inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, is concomitantly administered to patients with a variety of medications. To assess the potential for its involvement in drug interactions, cytochrome P-450 (CYP) reaction phenotyping of NVP to its four oxidative metabolites, 2-, 3-, 8-, and 12-hydroxyNVP, was performed. The NVP metabolite formation rates by characterized human hepatic microsomes were best correlated with probe activities for either CYP3A4 (2- and 12-hydroxyNVP) or CYP2B6 (3-and 8-hydroxyNVP). In studies with cDNA-expressed human hepatic CYPs, 2- and 3-hydroxyNVP were exclusively formed by CYP3A and CYP2B6, respectively. Multiple cDNA-expressed CYPs produced 8- and 12-hydroxyNVP, although they were produced predominantly by CYP2D6 and CYP3A4, respectively. Antibody to CYP3A4 inhibited the rates of 2-, 8-, and 12-hydroxyNVP formation by human hepatic microsomes, whereas antibody to CYP2B6 inhibited the formation of 3- and 8-hydroxyNVP. Studies using the CYP3A4 inhibitors ketoconazole, troleandomycin, and erythromycin suggested a role for CYP3A4 in the formation of 2-, 8-, and 12-hydroxyNVP. These inhibitors were less effective or ineffective against the biotransformation of NVP to 3-hydroxyNVP. Quinidine very weakly inhibited only 8-hydroxyNVP formation. NVP itself was an inhibitor of only CYP3A4 at concentrations that were well above those of therapeutic relevance (K(i) = 270 microM). Collectively, these data indicate that NVP is principally metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 and that it has little potential to be involved in inhibitory drug interactions.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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