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FEBS Lett. 1999 Nov 19;461(3):299-305.

G1 versus G2 cell cycle arrest after adriamycin-induced damage in mouse Swiss3T3 cells.

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Department of Biochemistry, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong.


Cell cycle arrest after different types of DNA damage can occur in either G1 phase or G2 phase of the cell cycle, involving the distinct mechanisms of p53/p21(Cip1/Waf1) induction, and phosphorylation of Cdc2, respectively. Treatment of asynchronously growing Swiss3T3 cells with the chemotherapeutic drug adriamycin induced a predominantly G2 cell cycle arrest. Here we investigate why Swiss3T3 cells were arrested in G2 phase and not in G1 phase after adriamycin-induced damage. We show that adriamycin was capable of inducing a G1 cell cycle arrest, both during the G0-G1 transition and during the G1 phase of the normal cell cycle. In G0 cells, adriamycin induced a prolonged cell cycle arrest. However, adriamycin caused only a transient cell cycle delay when added to cells at later time points during G0-G1 transition or at the G1 phase of normal cell cycle. The G1 arrest correlated with the induction of p53 and p21(Cip1/Waf1), and the exit from the arrest correlated with the decline of their expression. In contrast to the G1 arrest, adriamycin-induced G2 arrest was relatively tight and correlated with the Thr-14/Tyr-15 phosphorylation of cyclin B-Cdc2 complexes. The relative stringency of the G1 versus G2 cell cycle arrest may explain the predominance of G2 arrest after adriamycin treatment in mammalian cells.

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