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Microb Drug Resist. 1999 Fall;5(3):189-93.

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases in clinical isolates of enterobacteria in Mexico.

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Bacterial Genetics Department, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Centro de Investigaciones Sobre Enfermedades Infecciosas, Cuernavaca, Mor., Mexico.


Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins within members of the family Enterobacteriaceae occurs virtually world-wide. Nevertheless, nothing was known about this problem among isolates from Mexico. To address this issue, we studied oximino-cephalosporin resistant isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (13), Escherichia coli (7), and Enterobacter cloacae (23) recovered from patients in Mexico City hospitals during 1990 to 1992. In the presence of clavulanic acid, these strains increased susceptibility to cefotaxime and ceftazidime (MIC90 64 and >256 microg/ml, respectively). The ability of these isolates to transfer resistance to both antibiotics by conjugation was most successfully demonstrated by K. pneumoniae. In all the clinical isolates tested, the largest plasmid coded for the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL). Characteristics of pI, by isoelectric focusing (IEF)/bioassay and DNA hybridization with specific probes of TEM and SHV, indicated that in most of the clinical isolates and all transconjugates, the most frequent beta-lactamase coded were SHV-derived (20 strains as 41% of isolates) and a plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase (12 strains as 25% of isolates) (with a pI of >8.2), which is not related to TEM/SHV. Apparently, isolates from Mexico show characteristics similar to isolates from other geographic areas. The type of beta-lactamases coded in these resistant isolates is documented for the first time in Mexico.

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