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Mol Microbiol. 1999 Nov;34(4):767-79.

Flagellar proteins and type III-exported virulence factors are the predominant proteins secreted into the culture media of Salmonella typhimurium.

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Department of Biosciences, Teikyo University, 1-1 Toyosatodai, Utsunomiya 320-8551, Japan. Department of Applied Biochemistry, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8505, Japan.


We analysed all major proteins secreted into culture media from Salmonella typhimurium. Proteins in culture supernatants were collected by trichloroacetic acid precipitation, separated in SDS-polyacrylamide gels and analysed by amino acid sequencing. Wild-type strain SJW1103 cells typically gave rise to nine bands in SDS gels: 89, 67, 58, 52, 50, 42, 40, 35 and (sometimes) 28 kDa. A search of the sequences in the available databases revealed that they were either flagellar proteins or virulence factors. Six of them were flagella specific: FlgK or HAP1 (58 kDa), FliC or flagellin (52 kDa), FliD or HAP2 (50 kDa), FlgE or hook protein (42 kDa), FlgL or HAP3 (35 kDa) and FlgD or hook-cap protein (28 kDa). The other four bands were specific for virulence factors: SipA (89 kDa), SipB (67 kDa), SipC (42 kDa) and InvJ (40 kDa). The 42 kDa band was a mixture of FlgE and SipC. We also analysed secreted proteins from more than 30 flagellar mutants, and they were categorized into four groups according to their band patterns: wild type, mot type, polyhook type and master gene type. Virulence factors were constantly secreted at a higher level in all flagellar mutants except a deltamot (motAB deletion) mutant, in which the amounts were greatly reduced. A new morphological pathway of flagellar biogenesis including protein secretion is presented.

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