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EMBO J. 1999 Nov 15;18(22):6561-72.

Activation of Rad53 kinase in response to DNA damage and its effect in modulating phosphorylation of the lagging strand DNA polymerase.

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Dipartimento di Genetica e di Biologia dei Microrganismi, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan, Italy.


The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad53 protein kinase is required for the execution of checkpoint arrest at multiple stages of the cell cycle. We found that Rad53 autophosphorylation activity depends on in trans phosphorylation mediated by Mec1 and does not require physical association with other proteins. Uncoupling in trans phosphorylation from autophosphorylation using a rad53 kinase-defective mutant results in a dominant-negative checkpoint defect. Activation of Rad53 in response to DNA damage in G(1) requires the Rad9, Mec3, Ddc1, Rad17 and Rad24 checkpoint factors, while this dependence is greatly reduced in S phase cells. Furthermore, during recovery from checkpoint activation, Rad53 activity decreases through a process that does not require protein synthesis. We also found that Rad53 modulates the lagging strand replication apparatus by controlling phosphorylation of the DNA polymerase alpha-primase complex in response to intra-S DNA damage.

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