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J Lab Clin Med. 1999 Nov;134(5):510-21.

Development of novel aroylhydrazone ligands for iron chelation therapy: 2-pyridylcarboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone analogs.

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Department of Medicine, University of Queensland, Royal Brisbane Hospital, Australia.


Previous studies have demonstrated that aroylhydrazone iron (Fe) chelators of the pyridoxal isonicotinoyl hydrazone (PIH) class have high Fe chelation efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. Depending on their design, these drugs may have potential as agents for the treatment of Fe overload disease or cancer. Considering the high potential of this class of ligands, we have synthesized seven novel aroylhydrazones in an attempt to identify Fe chelators more efficient than desferrioxamine (DFO) and more soluble than those of the PIH class. These compounds belong to a new series of tridentate chelators known as the 2-pyridylcarboxaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazones (PCIH). In this study we have examined the Fe chelation efficacy and antiproliferative activity of these chelators including their effects on the expression of genes (WAF1 and GADD45) known to be important in mediating cell cycle arrest at G1/S. From seven chelators synthesized, three ligands, namely 2-pyridylcarbox-aldehyde benzoyl hydrazone (PCBH), 2-pyridylcarboxaldehyde m-bromobenzoyl hydrazone (PCBBH), and 2-pyridylcarboxaldehyde 2-thiophenecarboxyl hydrazone (PCTH), showed greater Fe chelation activity than DFO and comparable or greater efficiency than PIH. These ligands were highly effective at both mobilizing 59Fe from cells and preventing 59Fe uptake from 59Fe-transferrin and caused a marked increase in the RNA-binding activity of the iron-regulatory proteins (IRP). Our studies have also demonstrated that compared with the cytotoxic Fe chelator, 2-hydroxy-1-naphthylaldehyde isonicotinoyl hydrazone (311), these ligands have far less effect on cellular growth and 3H-thymidine, 3H-leucine, or 3H-uridine incorporation. In addition, in contrast to 311, which markedly increased WAF1 and GADD45 mRNA expression, PCBH and PCTH did not have any effect, whereas PCBBH increased the expression of GADD45 mRNA. Collectively, these results demonstrate the potential of several of these ligands as agents for the management of Fe overload disease.

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