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J Antimicrob Chemother. 1999 Nov;44(5):661-7.

Comparison of in-vitro pharmacodynamics of once and twice daily ciprofloxacin.

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Bristol Centre for Antimicrobial Research and Evaluation, Southmead Health Services NHS Trust and University of Bristol, Department of Medical Microbiology, Southmead Hospital, Westbury-on-Trym, Bristol BS10 5NB, UK.


The pharmacodynamics of ciprofloxacin were explored in an in-vitro continuous bacterial culture model of infection, by simulating two oral dosing regimens; 0.5 g 12-hourly (bd) and 1 g 24-hourly (od). Three strains of Escherichia coli (ciprofloxacin MICs 0.03, 0.5 and 2 mg/L); two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MICs 0.09 and 1.5 mg/L), two strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MICs 0.12 and 1 mg/L) and two strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae (MICs 0.5 and 2 mg/L) were used. Three pharmacodynamic parameters, T > MIC, C(max)/MIC and AUC/MIC (T = time, C(max) = peak serum concentration, AUC = area under the curve), were compared with area under the bacterial-kill curve (AUBKC) (after transformation of the AUBKC) using a simple E(max) or sigmoidal E(max) model. AUBKC was taken to be the main antibacterial effect measure. The models were compared by inspection of residuals and Akaike information criterion. E(max) models adequately described the relationship between AUC/MIC and AUBKC and between C(max)/MIC and AUBKC, but not between T> MIC and AUBKC. All three pharmacodynamic parameters are related to each other but multiple regression analysis indicated that AUC/MIC was the best individual predictor of AUBKC. Despite this, comparison of od and bd regimens indicates some advantage to od in terms of early antibacterial effect. Serum concentration-time curve shape has some importance in determining antibacterial effect. These data indicate that for ciprofloxacin AUC/MIC ratio is not the sole determinant of antibacterial effect.

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