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J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999 Nov 1;34(5):1602-8.

Association of body mass, gender and race with heart failure primarily due to hypertension.

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  • 1Section of Cardiology, University of Illinois at Chicago, 60612, USA.



This study was performed to determine the association between clinical characteristics, particularly body mass and race, and the likelihood of hypertension as the primary etiology for heart failure (HTNCM).


Although held to be important in the development of heart failure, the clinical characteristics predictive of HTNCM have not been well delineated.


The study analysis was conducted using 680 patients from the University of North Carolina Heart Failure Database. This data set is racially diverse (44% African-American) and contains data concerning baseline clinical characteristics and cardiac function in patients with and without HTNCM. Logistic regression techniques determined independent predictors of HTNCM among the entire study population as well as the subgroup of study patients with hypertension.


Hypertension was present in 51% of the study patients but was the primary etiology of heart failure in only 25%. Body mass, race, gender and baseline systolic blood pressure were identified as significant independent predictors of the likelihood of HTNCM (all p < 0.001). These characteristics were predictors in the total study population and also in the subgroup of study patients with hypertension.


Hypertension remains a common etiologic factor for the development of heart failure but was the primary cause of heart failure in a minority of study patients. However, the presence of increased body mass, female gender, African-American ethnic origin or elevated baseline systolic blood pressure significantly increased the likelihood of HTNCM.

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